Context of Scripture Online cover image

The Context of Scripture Online illuminatingly presents the multi-faceted world of ancient writing that forms the colorful background to the literature of the Hebrew Bible.

Five textgroups

The Context of Scripture Online is represented by five textgroups in the library. The reason is as follows.

Part of the syntax if CTS URNs is the CTSNAMESPACE. Intended as a naming authority to declare the uniqueness of textgroup identifiers, in practice it functions as an identifier of the linguistic-cultural tradition. (This can lead to a certain overlap with with the language identifier that is part of the work version identifier.) In The Context of Scripture Online, there are five such traditions. They are listed here.

Edited by William J. Hallo, The Context of Scripture illuminatingly presents the multi-faceted world of ancient writing that forms the colorful background to the literature of the Hebrew Bible. The online version makes the content of this unique and valuable reference work even more accessible.

Designed as a thorough and enduring reference work for all engaged in the study of the Bible and the ancient Near East, it provides reliable access to a broad, balanced, and representative collection of Ancient Near Eastern texts that have an impact on the interpretation of the Bible. Each entry includes an introduction to the text, an authoritative translation, commentary, and bibliographic references.

The online version is based on the substantial three-volume work and was updated with the fourth volume, which was published in 2016.

The table below lists all of the texts per entry number, volume number, language, and text type. Click the column headings to reverse the order.

Entry NameNumberVolumeLanguageType
From the “Book of Nut”1 11EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Coffin Texts Spell 7141 21EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Pyramid Texts Spell 5271 31EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Pyramid Texts Spell 6001 41EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Coffin Texts Spell 751 51EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Coffin Texts Spell 761 61EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Coffin Texts Spell 781 71EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Coffin Texts Spell 801 81EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Papyrus Bremner-Rhind1 91EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Coffin Texts Spell 335 = Book of the Dead Spell 171 101EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Coffin Texts Spell 2611 111EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Coffin Texts Spell 6471 121EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From A Ramesside Stela1 131EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From the Berlin “Hymn to Ptah”1 141EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From the “Memphite Theology”1 151EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Papyrus Leiden I 3501 161EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From Coffin Texts Spell 11301 171EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Book of the Dead 1751 181EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Coffin Text 1571 191EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Book of the Dead 1121 201EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Repulsing of the Dragon1 211EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Legend of Isis and the Name of Re1 221EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Legend of Astarte and the Tribute of the Sea1 231EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Destruction of Mankind1 241EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Great Cairo Hymn of Praise to Amun-Re1 251EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Great Hymn to Osiris1 261EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Two Hymns to the Sun–God1 271EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Great Hymn to Aten1 281EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Prayer to Re-harakhti1 291EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Song From the Tomb of King Intef1 301EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Song From the Tomb of Neferhotep1 311EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Execration Texts1 321EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Dream Oracles1 331EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Daily Ritual of the Temple of Amun-Re At Karnak1 341EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Merikare1 351EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Amenemhet1 361EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
King Lists1 371EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Karnak List1 37A1EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Abydos List (al)1 37B1EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Sakkara King List (sl)1 37C1EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Turin Canon1 37D1EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Sinuhe1 381EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Shipwrecked Sailor1 391EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Two Brothers1 401EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Report of Wenamun1 411EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage: The Admonitions of Ipuwer1 421EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Eloquent Peasant1 431EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Complaints of Khakheperrē-sonb1 441EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Prophecies of Neferti1 451EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Instruction of Any1 461EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Instruction of Amenemope1 471EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Dua-khety or the Satire On the Trades1 481EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Papyrus Harris 5001 491EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Cairo Love Songs1 501EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Papyrus Chester Beatty I1 511EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Ostracon Gardiner 3041 521EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Famine Stela1 531EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Legend of the Possessed Princess (“Bentresh Stela”)1 541EgyptianEgyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Elkunirša and Ašertu1 551AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Storm-god and the Serpent (illuyanka)1 561AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Wrath of Telipinu1 571AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Appu and His Two Sons1 581AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Sun God and the Cow1 591AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Plague Prayers of Muršili II1 601AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The “Ritual Between the Pieces”1 611AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Puliša’s Ritual Against Plague1 621AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Uḫḫamuwa’s Ritual Against Plague1 631AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Zarpiya’s Ritual1 641AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Ritual and Prayer to Ishtar of Nineveh1 651AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The First Soldiers’ Oath1 661AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Second Soldiers’ Oath1 671AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Purifying A House: A Ritual for the Infernal Deities1 681AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Storm God At Liḫzina1 691AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Establishing A New Temple for the Goddess of the Night1 701AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Queen of Kanesh and the Tale of Zalpa1 711AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Proclamation of Anitta of Kuššar1 721AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Crossing of the Taurus1 731AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Deeds of Suppiluliuma1 741AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Hittite Conquest of Cyprus: Two Inscriptions of Suppiluliuma II1 751AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Proclamation of Telipinu1 761AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Apology of Ḫattušili III1 771AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Excerpt From An Oracle Report1 781AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Assuring the Safety of the King During the Winter1 791AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Hittite Proverbs1 801AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Fragment of A Wisdom Text (?)1 811AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Excerpt From the Hurro-Hittite Bilingual Wisdom Text1 821AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Instructions to Priests and Temple Officials1 831AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Instructions to Commanders of Border Garrisons (Bel Madgalti)1 841AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Instructions to the Royal Guard (Mešedi Protocol)1 851AnatolianHittite Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Baʿlu Myth1 861West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Dawn and Dusk1 871West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Ugaritic Prayer for A City Under Siege1 881West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Prayer of Nabonidus (4QPrNab)1 891West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Ugaritic Birth Omens1 901West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Ugaritic Lunar Omens1 911West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Ugaritic Extispicy1 921West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Ugaritic Dream Omens1 931West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Ugaritic Liturgy Against Venomous Reptiles1 941West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Ugaritic Rites for the Vintage ( 1.41/1.87)1 951West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Ugaritic Incantation Against Sorcery1 961West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
ʾIlu On A Toot1 971West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
A Punic Sacrificial Tariff1 981West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Aramaic Text In Demotic Script1 991West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
A Ugaritic Incantation Against Serpents and Sorcerers1 1001West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The London Medical Papyrus1 1011West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Kirta Epic1 1021West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The ʾAqhatu Legend1 1031West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Ugaritic King List1 1041West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Patrons of the Ugaritic Dynasty (KTU 1.161)1 1051West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Hippiatric Texts1 1061West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Abecedaries1 1071West SemiticWest Semitic Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Descent of Ishtar to the Underworld1 1081AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Nergal and Ereshkigal1 1091AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Nergal and Ereshkigal1 1101AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Epic of Creation1 1111AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Theogony of Dunnu1 1121AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Erra and Ishum1 1131AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Prayer to Marduk1 1141AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Prayer to Gods of the Night1 1151AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Diurnal Prayers of Diviners1 1161AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Shamash Hymn1 1171AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
A Neo-Babylonian Lament for Tammuz1 1181AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
An Assyrian Elegy1 1191AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Mesopotamian Omens1 1201AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Divination1 1201AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Old Babylonian Incantation Against Cattle Disease1 1211AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Installation of the Storm God’s High Priestess1 1221AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Festival1 1231AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Six Months of Ritual Supervision By the Diviner1 1241AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Two Months Joined by the Underworld, with Barring and Opening of Doors1 1251AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Two Festivals1 1261AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
A Psephomancy Ritual From Assur1 1271AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Love Lyrics of Nabu and Tashmetu1 1281AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Adapa Story1 1291AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Atra-ḫasis1 1301AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Etana1 1311AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Gilgamesh1 1321AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Birth Legend of Sargon of Akkad1 1331AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Babylonian King Lists1 1341AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Assyrian King Lists1 1351AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Assyrian Eponym Canon1 1361AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Babylonian Chronicle1 1371AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Weidner Chronicle1 1381AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
A Hymn Celebrating Assurnasirpal II’s Campaigns to the West1 1391AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
A Prayer from a Coronation Ritual of the Time of Tukulti-Ninurta I1 1401AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
A Hymn to Nanaya With A Blessing for Sargon II1 1411AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Assurbanipal’s Coronation Hymn1 1421AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
An Assurbanipal Hymn for Shamash1 1431AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
An Assurbanipal Prayer for Mullissu1 1441AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Dialogue Between Assurbanipal and Nabu1 1451AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
A Late Piece of Constructed Mythology Relevant to the Neo-Assyrian and Middle Assyrian Coronation Hymn and Prayer1 1461AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Adad-Guppi Autobiography1 1471AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Autobiography of Idrimi1 1481AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Love Poems1 501Egyptian Egyptian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Marduk Prophecy1 1491AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Dynastic Prophecy1 1501AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Dialogue Between A Man and His God1 1511AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
A Sufferer’s Salvation1 1521AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Poem of the Righteous Sufferer1 1531AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Babylonian Theodicy1 1541AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Dialogue of Pessimism or the Obliging Slave1 1551AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
“At the Cleaners”1 1561AkkadianAkkadian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Song of the Hoe1 1571SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Eridu Genesis1 1581SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Enki and Ninmaḫ1 1591SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Exaltation of Inanna1 1601SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Inanna and Enki1 1611SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
To Nanshe1 1621SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Blessing of Nisaba By Enki1 1631SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Letter-Prayer of King Sin-iddinam to Nin-isina1 1641SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Letter-Prayer of King Sin-iddinam to Utu1 1651SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Lamentation Over the Destruction of Ur1 1661SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
A “Non-canonical” Incantation1 1671SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
From “Evil Spirits”1 1681SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Dumuzi-Inanna Songs1 1691SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
The Women’s Oath1 169A1SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Bridegroom, Spend the Night In Our House Till Dawn1 169B1SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Love by the Light of the Moon1 169C1SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Divine Focus
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta1 1701SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Gilgamesh and Akka1 1711SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Birth of Shulgi In the Temple of Nippur1 1721SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
The Sacred Marriage of Iddin-Dagan and Inanna1 1731SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Royal Focus
Sumerian Proverb Collection 31 1741SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Proverbs Quoted In Other Genres1 1751SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Shuruppak1 1761SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
Ur-Ninurta1 1771SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Heron and the Turtle1 1781SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
“Man and His God”1 1791SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Disputation Between Ewe and Wheat1 1801SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Disputation Between the Hoe and the Plow1 1811SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Disputation Between Bird and Fish1 1821SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Disputation Between Summer and Winter1 1831SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
School Dialogues1 1841SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Dialogue Between Two Scribes1 1841SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Dialogue Between A Supervisor and A Scribe1 1851SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Dialogue Between An Examiner and A Student1 1861SumerianSumerian Canonical Compositions - Individual Focus
The Tomb Biography of Ahmose of Nekheb2 12EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
Thutmose III2 22EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The Annals of Thutmose III2 2A2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The Gebel Barkal Stela of Thutmose III2 2B2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The Armant Stela of Thutmose III2 2C2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The Memphis and Karnak Stelae of Amenhotep II2 32EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
Karnak, Campaign From Sile to Pa-Canaan, Year 12 4A2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
First Beth-Shan Stela, Year 12 4B2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
Karnak, Campaign to Yenoam and Lebanon (year 1 or Later)2 4C2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
Second Beth-Shan Stela, [year Lost]2 4D2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
Karnak, Campaign Against the Hittites (undated)2 4E2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
Karnak, Campaign Against the Libyans (undated)2 4F2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
Karnak, Campaign Against Qadesh and Amurru (undated)2 4G2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The Battle of Qadesh — the Poem, or Literary Record2 5A2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The Battle of Qadesh — the “Bulletin” Text2 5B2EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The (Israel) Stela of Merneptah2 62EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The Victory Stela of King Piye (Piankhy)2 72EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
Pyramid Texts 213 and 2192 82EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Coffin Text 2612 92EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Coffin Text 1592 102EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Book of the Dead 1092 112EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Book of the Dead 1252 122EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Contrasting Harper Songs From the Tomb of Neferhotep2 132EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Hymn From the Tomb of Ay2 142EgyptianEgyptian Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Bilingual Edict of Ḫattušili I2 152AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The Ten Year Annals of Great King Muršili II of Ḫatti2 162AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Royal Inscriptions
The Treaties Between Ḫatti and Amurru2 172AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
Treaty Between Šuppiluliuma and Aziru2 17A2AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
Treaty Between Muršili and Duppi-Tešub2 17B2AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
Treaty Between Tudḫaliya and Šaušgamuwa2 17C2AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Treaty of Tudḫaliya IV with Kurunta of Tarḫuntašša On the Bronze Tablet Found In Ḫattuša2 182AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
Hittite Laws2 192AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
“Ideal Prices”2 202AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Hieroglyphic Inscriptions
Karkamiš A2 (+3)2 20A2AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Hieroglyphic Inscriptions
Karkamiš A11a2 20B2AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Hieroglyphic Inscriptions
Aksaray2 20C2AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Hieroglyphic Inscriptions
Azatiwata2 212AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Hieroglyphic Inscriptions
Funerary Inscriptions2 222AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Hieroglyphic Inscriptions
Maraş 42 22A2AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Hieroglyphic Inscriptions
Kululu 42 22B2AnatolianHittite Monumental Inscriptions - Hieroglyphic Inscriptions
The Inscription of King Mesha2 232West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Amman Citadel Inscription2 242West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Tell Sīrān Inscription2 252West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Amman Theatre Inscription2 262West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Deir ʿAlla Plaster Inscriptions2 272West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Siloam Tunnel Inscription2 282West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Inscription of King Yaḥimilk2 292West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Kulamuwa Inscription2 302West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Azatiwada Inscription2 312West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Inscription of King Yeḥawmilk2 322West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Melqart Stela2 332West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
Hadad-yithʿi2 342West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Inscription of Zakkur, King of Hamath2 352West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Hadad Inscription2 362West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Panamuwa Inscription2 372West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Bar-Rakib Inscription2 382West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Tell Dan Stele2 392West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Hazael Booty Inscriptions2 402West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Aswan Dedicatory Inscription2 412West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Ekron Inscription of Akhayus2 422West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
A Nabataean Commemorative Inscription From ʿAvdat2 432West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
The Dedication of A Statue to the Divinized Nabataean King2 442West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
A Nabataean Inscription Containing Religious Laws From the Atargatis Temple At Petra2 452West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
A Nabataean Shrine Inscription From Egypt2 462West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Building and Memorial Inscriptions
Kuntillet ʿAjrud2 472West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Inscribed Pithos 12 47A2West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Inscribed Pithos 22 47B2West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Kuntillet ʿAjrud: the Two-line Inscription2 47C2West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Kuntillet ʿAjrud: Plaster Wall Inscription2 47D2West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
The Jerusalem Pomegranate2 482West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Jerusalem Ostracon2 492West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
The Temple of the Lord Ostracon2 502West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Tell el-Maskhuṭa Libation Bowls2 512West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.36)2 51A2West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 57.121)2 51B2West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.32)2 51C2West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Silver Bowl (Brooklyn Museum 54.50.34)2 51D2West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Khirbet el-Qom2 522West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
The Khirbet Beit Lei Cave Inscriptions2 532West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
The Royal Steward Inscription2 542West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
King of Byblos2 552West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
The Sarcophagus Inscription of Tabnit, King of Sidon2 562West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
The Sarcophagus Inscription of ʾEshmunʿazor, King of Sidon2 572West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
The Funerary Inscription from Pyrgi2 582West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
The Tomb Inscription of Siʾgabbar, Priest of Sahar2 592West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Aramaic Mortuary Texts from Egypt2 P1852West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Offering Table from the Memphis Serapeum2 602West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Funerary Stela (Brussels E. 4716)2 612West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Funerary Stela From Saqqarah (Berlin Gipsformerei 939 Formerly ÄM 7707 [destroyed WW II])2 622West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Funerary Stela (Saqqarah; Location Unknown)2 632West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Funerary Stela (Carpentras)2 642West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Funerary Stela (Vatican Museum 10 Sala 22787) (2.65)2 652West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Tombstone Inscription (Greco-Roman Museum 18361)2 662West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
The Nabataean Tomb Inscription of Kamkam at Madāʾin ṣāliḥ2 672West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
The Nabataean Tomb Inscription of Ḥalafu at Madāʾin ṣāliḥ2 682West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
A Nabataean Funerary Inscription From Madeba2 692West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Mortuary Inscriptions
Seals and Seal Impressions2 702West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Hebrew2 702West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Ammonite2 712West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Moabite2 722West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Edomite2 732West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Phoenician2 742West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Philistine2 752West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Early Aramaic2 762West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Royal Judaean Seal Impressions2 772West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Persian Period2 782West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
The Seal of ʿAśayāhū2 792West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Stamps2 802West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Seal and Stamp Inscriptions
Hebrew Weight Inscriptions2 812West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
The Inscriptions of Bar-gaʾyah and Matiʿel From Sefire2 822West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Ketef Hinnom Amulets2 832West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Miscellaneous Inscriptions
The El Khadr Arrowheads2 842West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Miscellaneous Inscriptions
The Gezer Calendar2 852West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Miscellaneous Inscriptions
An Amulet From Arslan Tash2 862West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Miscellaneous Inscriptions
The Tel Dan Bowl2 872West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Miscellaneous Inscriptions
Inscribed Nimrud Ivories2 882West SemiticWest Semitic Monumental Inscriptions - Miscellaneous Inscriptions
Inscription of Sargon: Foundation of the Akkadian Empire2 892AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Inscription of Narām-sîn: Deification of the King2 902AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Inscription of Narām-sîn: Campaign Against Armānum and Ebla2 912AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Isin Dynasty2 922AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ishbi-Erra2 922AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Shu-ilishu2 932AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ishme-Dagan2 942AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Lipit-Eshtar2 952AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ur-Ninurta2 962AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ur-dukuga2 972AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Larsa Dynasty2 982AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Gungunum2 982AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Nur-Adad2 99A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Nur-Adad2 99B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sin-iddinam2 1002AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Warad-Sin2 101A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Warad-Sin2 101B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Rim-Sin2 102A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Rim-Sin2 102B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Rim-Sin2 102C2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Rim-Sin2 102D2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Eshnunna2 1032AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ipiq-Adad II2 1032AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Uruk2 1042AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sin-kashid2 1042AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Anam2 1052AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Simurrum — Iddi (n)-Sin2 1062AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Babylon2 107A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Hammu-rapi2 107A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Hammu-rapi2 107B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Hammu-rapi2 107C2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Hammu-rapi2 107D2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Samsu-iluna2 1082AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ammi-ditana2 1092AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ekallatum — Shamshi-Addu2 1102AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Mari2 1112AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Iahdun-Lim2 1112AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Zimri-Lim2 1122AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Shalmaneser III2 1132AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Kurkh Monolith2 113A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Annals: Aššur Clay Tablets2 113B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Annals: Calaḫ Bulls2 113C2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Annals: Marble Slab2 113D2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Kurbaʾil Statue2 113E2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Black Obelisk2 113F2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Aššur Basalt Statue2 113G2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Black Stone Cylinder2 113H2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Die () of Yaḫali2 113I2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Adad-nirari III2 1142AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Antakya Stela2 114A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Pazarcik / Maraş Stela2 114B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Orthostat Slab of Unknown Provenance2 114C2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Tell Sheik Hammad Stela2 114D2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sabaʾa Stela2 114E2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Tell Al Rimah Stela2 114F2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Calah Orthostat Slab2 114G2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Stela of Sammuramat (Semiramis)2 114H2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Officials’ Inscriptions2 1152AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Šamši-ilu — Stone Lions Inscription2 115A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur — Suḫu Annals #22 115B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur — Suḫu Annals (#18)2 115C2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ninurta-kudurrī-uṣur — Suḫu Annals (#17)2 115D2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Shalmaneser IV — Pazaricik / Maraş Stela2 1162AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Tiglath-pileser III2 1172AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Calaḫ Annals2 117A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Iran Stela2 117B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Summary Inscription 42 117C2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Summary Inscription 72 117D2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Summary Inscription 82 117E2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Summary Inscription 9–102 117F2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Summary Inscription 132 117G2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sargon II2 1182AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Annals2 118A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Borowski Stela2 118B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Aššur “Charter”2 118C2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Nimrud Prisms D & E2 118D2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Great “Summary” Inscription2 118E2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Small “Summary” Inscription2 118F2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Pavement Inscription 42 118G2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Cylinder Inscription2 118H2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Nimrud Inscription2 118I2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Tang-i Var Inscription2 118J2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sennacherib2 1192AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sennacherib’s First Campaign: Against Merodach-baladan2 119A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sennacherib’s Siege of Jerusalem2 119B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sennacherib — Lachish Relief Inscription2 119C2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sennacherib: the “Azekah” Inscription2 119D2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Sennacherib: the Capture and Destruction of Babylon2 119E2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Esarhaddon2 1202AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Neo-Babylonian Inscriptions2 AK A 52AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Nabopolassar’s Restoration of Imgur-Enlil, the Inner Defensive Wall of Babylon2 1212AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Nebuchadnezzar II2 1222AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Nebuchadnezzar II’s Restoration of the Ebabbar Temple In Larsa2 122A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Nebuchadnezzar II’s Restoration of E-urimin-anika, The Ziggurat of Borsippa2 122B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Nabonidus2 1232AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
The Sippar Cylinder of Nabonidus2 123A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Nabonidus’ Rebuilding of E-lugal-galga-sisa, The Ziggurat of Ur2 123B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Cyrus Cylinder2 1242AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Votive Seal Inscriptions2 1252AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Seal Inscriptions
Rimut-ilani2 125A2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Seal Inscriptions
Nabu-apla-iddina2 125B2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Seal Inscriptions
Marduk-zakir-shumi2 125C2AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Seal Inscriptions
Weight Inscriptions2 1262AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
Abbael’s Gift of Alalakh ( 1)2 1272AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Agreement Between Ir-addu and Niqmepa ( 2)2 1282AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
Agreement Between Pillia and Idrimi ( 3)2 1292AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Laws of Eshnunna2 1302AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Laws of Hammurabi2 1312AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Middle Assyrian Laws2 1322AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Neo-Babylonian Laws2 1332AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Edicts of Samsu-iluna and His Successors2 1342AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The “Sun Disk” Tablet of Nabû-apla-iddina2 1352AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
Will of Ammitaku Leader of Alalakh2 1362AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
Land Grant 456*2 1372AkkadianAkkadian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
Ur-Nammu2 138A2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ur-Nammu2 138B2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ur-Nammu2 138C2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ur-Nammu2 138D2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Shulgi2 139A2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Shulgi2 139B2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Shulgi2 139C2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Shulgi2 139D2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Amar-Suena2 140A2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Amar-Suena2 140B2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ibbi-Sin2 141A2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Ibbi-Sin2 141B2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Old Babylonian Inscriptions2 141B2SumerianSumerian Monumental inscriptions - Building an Display Inscriptions
Votive Inscriptions2 1422SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Ibbi-sin2 1422SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Lugal-murube Son of Zuzu2 1432SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Votive Inscriptions
Babati2 1442SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Seal Inscriptions
Servants of Kings2 1452SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Seal Inscriptions
Weight Inscriptions (2.146A)2 146A2SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
Weight Inscriptions2 146A2SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
Weight Inscriptions (2.146B)2 146B2SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
Weight Inscriptions (2.147)2 1472SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
Weight Inscriptions (2.148)2 1482SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
Weight Inscriptions (2.149)2 1492SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
Weight Inscriptions (2.150)2 1502SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
Weight Inscriptions (2.151)2 1512SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Weight Inscriptions
Reforms of Uru-inimgina2 1522SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Laws of Ur-Namma (Ur-Nammu)2 1532SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Laws of Lipit-Ishtar2 1542SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - "Functional" Inscriptions
The Cylinders of Gudea2 1552SumerianSumerian Monumental Inscriptions - Temple Hymns of Gudea
The Heqanakht Letters3 13EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Letters
Heqanakht Letter I3 1A3EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Letters
Heqanakht Letter II3 1B3EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Letters
Heqanakht Letter III3 1C3EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Letters
The Craft of the Scribe3 23EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Letters
Praise of Pi-Ramessu3 33EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Letters
A Report of Escaped Laborers3 43EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Letters
A Report of Bedouin3 53EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Letters
Papyrus Rylands VI3 63EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Contracts
Demotic Self-Dedication Texts3 7A3EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Contracts
Papyrus British Museum 106223 7A3EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Contracts
Papyrus British Museum 106243 7B3EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Contracts
Papyrus Milan 63 7C3EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Contracts
The Turin Judicial Papyrus3 83EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Courtcases
Papyri Rollin and Lee3 93EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Courtcases
A Lawsuit Over a Syrian Slave3 103EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Courtcases
Semitic Slaves on a Middle Kingdom Estate3 113EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Accounts
Semitic Functionaries in Egypt3 123EgyptianEgyptian Archival Documents - Accounts
Middle Hittite Period (ca. 1450–1350 BCE)3 133AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 1 (1)3 133AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 2 (2)3 143AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 3 (3)3 153AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 4 (4)3 163AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 5 (5)3 173AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 6 (6)3 183AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 7 (7)3 193AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 8 (8)3 203AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 9 (9)3 213AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 10 (10)3 223AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 11 (12)3 233AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 12 (13)3 243AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū In Tapikka 13 (14)3 253AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū and Zulapi In Tapikka 1 (15)3 263AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū and Zulapi In Tapikka 2 (16)3 273AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū, Ḫulla and Zulapi In Tapikka (17)3 283AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Kaššū and Pulli In Tapikka (18)3 293AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
Letter From Queen Naptera of Egypt to Queen Puduḫepa of Ḫatti3 303AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
Letter From Ḫattušili III of Ḫatti to Kadašman-Enlil II of Babylon3 313AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
Letter From Piḫa-Walwi of Ḫatti to Ibiranu of Ugarit3 323AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Letters
Records of Testimony Given In the Trials of Suspected Thieves and Embezzlers of Royal Property3 333AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Courtcases
The Case Against Ura-Tarḫunta and His Father Ukkura3 333AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Courtcases
Cult Inventories3 343AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
Kbo 2.1 ( 509)3 343AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
Cult Image Descriptions3 353AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
Kub 38.2 (Bildbeschr. Text 1)3 353AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
Votive Records3 363AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
Kub 15.1 ( 584.1)3 363AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
Archive Shelf Lists3 373AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 1–23 373AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
From Büyükkale, Building A, Rooms 4–53 383AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
From Büyükkale, Building A3 393AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
From Büyükkale, Building E3 403AnatolianHittite Archival Documents - Accounts
The Meṣad Ḥashavyahu (Yavneh Yam) Ostracon3 413West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Lachish Ostraca3 423West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Lachish 2: Thanks and Good Wishes3 42A3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Lachish 3: Complaints and Information3 42B3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Lachish 4: Military Reports3 42C3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Lachish 5: Thanks and Remarks on the Harvest3 42D3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Lachish 6: Reactions to Forwarded Correspondence3 42E3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Lachish 9: Requests3 42F3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad Ostraca3 433West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 1: Order for Allotment of Supplies3 43A3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 2: Order for Allotment of Supplies3 43B3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 3: Order for Allotment of Supplies3 43C3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 4: Order for Allotment of Supplies3 43D3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 5: Order for Allotment of Supplies Plus a Possible Mention of Tithe3 43E3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 7: Another Order for Allotment of Supplies3 43F3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 16: A Letter Between Brothers3 43G3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 17: Another Order for Allotment of Supplies, With Postscript3 43H3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 18: A Letter From One of Elyashib’s Subordinates3 43I3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 21: A Son’s Letter3 43J3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 24: Military Movements3 43K3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 40: the Edomite Problem3 43L3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Arad 88: A Fragment of a Copy of a Royal Proclamation3 43M3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The Widow’s Plea3 443West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Ugaritic Letters3 45A3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Talmiyānu to His Mother Ṯarriyelli (RS 15.008)3 45A3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Talmiyānu Keeps in Touch with the Queen (RS 9.479a)3 45B3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Talmiyānu and ʾAḫātumilki Keep in Touch with an Unnamed Lady (RS 8.315)3 45C3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The King to the Queen-Mother In the Matter of the Amurrite Princess (RS 34.124)3 45D3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The King of Ugarit to the Queen-Mother In the Matter of His Meeting With the Hittite Sovereigns (RS 11.872)3 45E3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The King of Ugarit to the Queen-Mother In the Matter of His Meeting With the Hittite Sovereign (RS 16.379)3 45F3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
A Royal Son to His Mother as Regards Warfare (RIH 78.12)3 45G3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The King of Tyre to the King of Ugarit in the Matter of Storm-Damaged Ships (RS 18.031)3 45H3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The King of Hatti to the King of Ugarit (RS 18.038)3 45I3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Puduḫepa, Queen of Hatti, to the King of Ugarit (RS 17.434+)3 45J3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Pgn to the King of Ugarit (RS 18.147)3 45K3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Mutual Assistance (RS 18.075)3 45L3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
ʿAmmiṯtamru, King of Ugarit, to the King of Egypt (RIH 78.3+30)3 45M3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
ʿAmmurāpiʾ to the King of Egypt(RS 34.356)3 45N3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Part of a Letter Addressed to the King of Egypt (RS 16.078)3 45O3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
[From the King of Ugarit?] to the Hittite Emperor (RS 94.5015)3 45P3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The King to Ḥayyaʾil Regarding an Allotment of Logs (RS 16.264)3 45Q3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Double Letter: From the Queen to ʾUrtēnu and from ʾIlīmilku to the Same (RS 94.2406)3 45R3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The Queen to Yarmîhaddu (RS 96.2039)3 45S3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Ṯipṭibaʿlu (Shibti-baʿlu) to the King (RS 18.040)3 45T3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
From an Official in Alashia to the King (RS 18.113a+b) (3.45U)3 45U3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
ʿUzzīnu to the King (RS 94.2391)3 45V3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Unknown to the King (RS 34.148)3 45W3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Message of ʾIririṯaruma to the Queen (RS 16.402)3 45X3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
ʾUrǵitēṯub (Urḫi-tešub) to the Queen (RS 20.199)3 45Y3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The Governor to the Queen (RS 94.2479)3 45Z3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Unknown, Perhaps the Queen, to Unknown (RS 94.2592)3 45AA3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
A Military Situation (RS 4.475)3 45BB3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Request for a Free Hand (RS 15.007)3 45CC3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Brother to Sister (RS 17.063)3 45DD3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
ʿUzzīnu and Another Author to Master and Father (RS 17.117)3 45EE3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Emergency Report From a City-commander (RS 19.011)3 45FF3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
A Double Letter to Yabnīnu (RS 19.102)3 45GG3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Two Servants to their Master (RS 29.093)3 45HH3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
A Problem with Rations (RS 29.095)3 45II3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Double Letter, From ʿAzzīʾiltu to His Parents, from Same to His Sister (RS 92.2005)3 45JJ3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
ʾAnantēnu to his Master Ḫiḏmiratu (RS 92.2010)3 45KK3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
ʾAbniya Isn’t Happy (RS 94.2284)3 45LL3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Provisions Are Running Out (RS 94.2383 + Rs 94.2619)3 45MM3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Getting One’s Name Before the King (RS [varia 4])3 45NN3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
A Scribe Shows Off (RS 16.265)3 45OO3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The Greetings That ʾAbniya Might Have Sent (RS 94.2273)3 45PP3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The Jedaniah Archive from Elephantime3 P1163West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
The Passover Letter3 463West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Report of Conflict and Request for Assistance3 473West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Recommendation to Aid Two Benefactors3 483West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Report of Imprisonment of Jewish Leaders3 493West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Petition for Reconstruction of Temple (?) (draft)3 503West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Request for Letter of Recommendation (First Draft)3 513West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Recommendation for Reconstruction of Temple3 523West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Offer of Payment for Reconstruction of Temple (Draft)3 533West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Appeal of Adon King of Ekron to Pharaoh3 543West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Letters
Cebel Ires Daği3 553West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
A Barley Loan from Assur3 563West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
A Loan of Silver from Assur3 573West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
A Barley Loan from Guzāna3 583West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
The Mibtahiah Archive (471–410 BCE)3 593West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Grant of a Built Wall3 593West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Withdrawal from Land3 603West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Bequest of House to Daughter3 613West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Grant of Usufruct to Son-in-law3 623West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Document of Wifehood3 633West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Grant of House to Daughter3 643West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Withdrawal from Goods3 653West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Withdrawal from Goods3 663West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Withdrawal from House3 673West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Apportionment of Slaves3 683West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
The Ananiah Archive (456–402 BCE)3 693West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Loan of Silver3 693West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Withdrawal from3 703West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Document of Wifehood3 713West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Sale of Abandoned Property3 723West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Bequest of Apartment to Wife3 733West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Testamentary Manumission3 743West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
A Life Estate of Usufruct3 753West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Document of Wifehood3 763West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Adoption3 773West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Bequest In Contemplation of Death3 783West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Dowry Addendum3 793West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Sale of Apartment to Son-in-Law3 803West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
Loan of Grain3 813West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Contracts
The Tithe In Ugarit3 0823West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Accounts
Land Grant Along with Tithe Obligations3 823West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Accounts
Village Tithe Payments at Ugarit3 833West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Accounts
Ammonite Ostraca from Ḥesbân3 843West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Accounts
Ḥesbân Ostracon A13 843West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Accounts
Ḥesbân Ostracon A23 853West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Accounts
Ophel Ostracon3 863West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Accounts
Aramaic Ostraca3 87A3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Instructions Regarding Children and Inquiry Regarding Passover ( D7.6)3 87A3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Instructions to Shear Ewe3 87B3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Offer to Sew a Garment3 87C3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Instructions Regarding Silver for Marzeaḥ3 87D3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Greetings from a Pagan to a Jew3 87E3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Instructions to Aid Shepherd3 87F3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Instructions Regarding Legumes and Barley, Etc.3 87G3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Request for Salt3 87H3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Letter Regarding Gift, Handmaiden, Allotment, and Pots ( D7.9)3 87I3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Instructions Regarding Tunic3 87J3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
Notice of Dispatch of Wood3 87K3West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
An Aramaic Dream Report from Elephantine3 883West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
The Bukān Inscription3 893West SemiticWest Semitic Archival Documents - Miscellaneous Texts
A Letter of Enna-Dagan3 903AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
Letter Asking for the Return of Stolen Donkeys ( 116)3 913AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
Letter of Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem ( 286)3 92A3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
Letter of Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem (Urusalim) ( 289)3 92B3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
Letter of the Ruler of Gezer (Gazru) ( 292)3 92C3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
Letter of Tušratta, King of Mitanni ( 17)3 92D3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
Letter of Rib-Haddi of Byblos (Gubla) ( 362)3 92E3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
Letter of Labʾayu of Shechem (Šakmu) ( 253)3 92F3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
Letter of Labʾayu of Shechem (Šakmu) ( 254)3 92G3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
A Letter to Zalaia3 933AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
The Letter of Takuhlina3 943AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
The Murder of Sennacherib3 953AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
A Letter Reporting Matters in Kalaḫ (Kalḫu)3 963AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
A Letter Concerning the Grain Tax of the Samarians3 973AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
A Report on Work on Dūr-Šarrukin3 983AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Letters
Sale Transactions3 993AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
The Purchase of Beer ( 33)3 99A3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Sale of a Town ( 52)3 99B3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Receipt for the Purchase of a Debt Slave ( 65)3 1003AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Palace Receipt for the Return of a Marriage Gift ( 17)3 101A3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Marriage Customs ( 92)3 101B3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Seven Years of Barrenness Before a Second Wife ( 93)3 101C3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Security for a Loan ( 18)3 102A3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Transfer of Creditors (at 28)3 102B3AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Property Conveyances From Ugarit3 AK B 23AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Land Purchase Text3 1033AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Land Purchase Text3 1043AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Foreclosure and Redistribution of Land3 1053AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Land Sale3 1063AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Land Donation for Service Rendered3 1073AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Land Donation by the King3 1083AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Royal Land Grant3 1093AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Royal Land Grant3 1103AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Sale of Three Slaves3 1113AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Sale of a Slave Woman3 1123AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Slave Redemption3 1133AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Sale of a Slave3 1143AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Land Sale3 1153AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Debt Note3 1163AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Sale of an Estate3 1173AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
Land Sale3 1183AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Contracts
The Slandered Bride3 1193AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Courtcases
A Lawsuit from Hazor3 1203AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Courtcases
The Goring Ox at Nuzi3 1213AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Courtcases
A Court Order from Samaria3 1223AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Courtcases
A Neo-Babylonian Dialogue Document3 1233AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Courtcases
Offerings to the Temple Gates at Ur3 1243AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Accounts
List of Hapiru Soldiers ( 180)3 1253AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Accounts
Administrative Record ( 457)3 1263AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Accounts
An Assyrian Wine List3 1273AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Accounts
An Assyrian Horse List3 1283AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Accounts
Inheritance of a Brother and a Sister ( 7)3 1293AkkadianAkkadian Archival Documents - Wills
A Letter From an Angry Housewife3 1303AkkadianSumerian Archival Documents - Letters
A Letter to the King3 1313AkkadianSumerian Archival Documents - Letters
A Letter-order3 1323AkkadianSumerian Archival Documents - Letters
Slave Sale3 133A3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
Slave Sale3 133B3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
Real Estate Transaction3 133C3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
Real Estate Transaction3 133D3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
The Manumission of Umanigar3 134A3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
The Manumission of Šarakam and Ur-guna’a3 134B3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
The Marriage of Ur-Nanše and Šašunigin3 135A3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
The Marriage of Puzur-haya and Ubartum3 135B3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Loan of Silver to Šu-Ašli3 136A3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Loan of Silver to Ur-ga3 136B3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Loan of Sheep Fat3 136C3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Loan of Silver to Gina and Mani3 136D3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Loan of Silver to Šuna3 136E3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Loan of Silver to Ur-Enlila3 136F3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Loan of Silver to Girini3 136G3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Lease of Land3 137A3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Record of Hire3 137B3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
Another Record of Hire3 137C3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Model Contract3 1383SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Shipping Contract3 1393SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Contracts
A Trial for Adultery3 1403SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Courtcases
Inheritance3 1413SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Courtcases
A Functional Courtcase3 1423SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Courtcases
The Death of Shulgi3 1433SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Accounts
A Sumerian Amphictyony3 144A3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Accounts
Calendar Text3 144A3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Accounts
The -contributions for One Month3 144B3SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Accounts
Weights and Measures3 1453SumerianSumerian Archival Documents - Accounts
the Dispute Between a Man and his3 1463SumerianAddenda
The Akkadian Anzu Story3 1473SumerianAddenda
The Triple Topographical List of Thutmose III 4 14EgyptianHieroglyphic Compositions
The “Sea Peoples” Records of Ramesses III 4 24EgyptianHieroglyphic Compositions
The Levant Campaign of Shoshenq I 4 34EgyptianHieroglyphic Compositions
The Kawa Stelae of Taharqa Years 2–10, 689–680 BCE4 44EgyptianHieroglyphic Compositions
Kawa Stela IV, Year 6 4 4A4EgyptianHieroglyphic Compositions
Kawa Stela V, Year 6 4 4B4EgyptianHieroglyphic Compositions
Kawa Stela III, Years 2–8 4 4C4EgyptianHieroglyphic Compositions
Stela VI, Years 8–10 4 4D4EgyptianHieroglyphic Compositions
Kawa Stela VII, Year 10 4 4E4EgyptianHieroglyphic Compositions
The So-Called Demotic Chronicle 4 54EgyptianDemotic Compositions
The Kumarbi Series of Myths 4 64AnatolianHittite Compositions
The Song of Emergence 4 6A4AnatolianHittite Compositions
The Song of the God LAMMA 4 6B4AnatolianHittite Compositions
The Song of Silver 4 6C4AnatolianHittite Compositions
The Song of Ḫedammu 4 6D4AnatolianHittite Compositions
The Song of Ullikummi (CTH 345)4 6E4AnatolianHittite Compositions
KARKAMIŠ A11b+c 4 74AnatolianHieroglyphic Luwian Compositions
KARKAMIŠ A6 4 84AnatolianHieroglyphic Luwian Compositions
KARKAMIŠ A15b 4 94AnatolianHieroglyphic Luwian Compositions
TELL AHMAR 6 QUBBAH STELE4 104AnatolianHieroglyphic Luwian Compositions
ALEPPO 6 4 114AnatolianHieroglyphic Luwian Compositions
MEHARDE 4 124AnatolianHieroglyphic Luwian Compositions
SHEIZAR 4 134AnatolianHieroglyphic Luwian Compositions
HAMA 4 4 144AnatolianHieroglyphic Luwian Compositions
ÇINEKÖY 4 154AnatolianHieroglyphic Luwian Compositions
The Phoenician Inscription of Çineköy 4 164West SemiticPhoenician Compositions
Barley Order 4 174West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostraca 4 184West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 1 4 18A4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 2 4 18B4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 3 4 18C4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 4 4 18D4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 8 4 18E4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 10 4 18F4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 12 4 18G4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 14 4 18H4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 16 4 18I4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 18 4 18J4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 19 4 18K4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 23 4 18L4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 28 4 18M4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 44 4 18N4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
Samaria Ostracon 53 4 18O4West SemiticHebrew Compositions
The El-Kerak/Kemoshyat Inscription 4 194West SemiticMoabite Compositions
The New Moabite Royal Inscription 4 204West SemiticMoabite Compositions
The Incense Altar from Khirbet El-Mudiyineh 4 214West SemiticMoabite Compositions
Marzeaḥ Papyrus 4 224West SemiticMoabite Compositions
The KTMW Inscription 4 234West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Samʾalian Funerary Stele: Ördekburnu 4 244West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Ninurta-bēlu-uṣur 4 254West SemiticAramaic Compositions
The Akkadian Text 4 25A4West SemiticAramaic Compositions
The Aramaic Text 4 25B4West SemiticAramaic Compositions
The Luwian Text 4 25C4West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Tell Shiukh Fawqani 4 26A4West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Tell Shiukh Fawqani 4 26B4West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Tell Aḥmar 4 274West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Tell Šeḫ Ḥamad 4 28A4West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Tell Šeḫ Ḥamad 4 28B4West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Assur Ostracon 4 294West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Aramaic Inscription of the Xanthos Trilingual Stele 4 304West SemiticAramaic Compositions
Texts from Nuzi 4 314AkkadianNuzi Texts
Letter From The King of Mittani to Itḫi-Teššub, King of Arrapḫe (HSS IX 1: “Sauštatar Letter”)4 31A4AkkadianNuzi Texts
Ḫašiya Donates Real Estate To Prince Šilwe- Teššub ( HSS IX 35)4 31B4AkkadianNuzi Texts
Royal Order Concerning Ilku Done in The Royal City (HSS XIV 9)4 31C4AkkadianNuzi Texts
Judicial Resolution of Dispute Over Dimtu of Kizzuk (JEN 321)4 31D4AkkadianNuzi Texts
Declaration of No Contest by Holders of Title Alienated Through Real-Estate Adoption (JEN 160)4 31E4AkkadianNuzi Texts
Conviction of Oxherd on Account of Ox That Gored Its Fellow Ox (JEN IV 341)4 31F4AkkadianNuzi Texts
Expropriation of Materials and Ilku Labor, Breaking and Entering, Failure to Perform Upon Fee Payment4 31G4AkkadianNuzi Texts
Procuring Sex and Denying It (AASOR 16, 4)4 31H4AkkadianNuzi Texts
Royal Order Charging Local Authorities with Responsibility for Territory and Population (HSS XV 1)4 31I4AkkadianNuzi Texts
The Mesopotamian “Washing of the Mouth” (mīs pī) or “Opening of the Mouth” (pīt pī) Ritual4 32A-C4AkkadianRitual for the Cult Image
Nineveh Ritual Tablet 4 32A4AkkadianRitual for the Cult Image
The Babylonian Version of the “Opening of the Mouth” Ritual (BM 45749)4 32B4AkkadianRitual for the Cult Image
Important Incantations 4 32C4AkkadianRitual for the Cult Image
Treaty of Šamši-Adad V with Marduk-zakir-šumi, King of Babylon 4 334AkkadianNeo-Assyrian Treaties
Treaty of Aššur-Nerari V with Matiʾ-ilu, King of Arpad 4 344AkkadianNeo-Assyrian Treaties
Esarhaddon’s Treaty with Baal, King of Tyre 4 354AkkadianNeo-Assyrian Treaties
Esarhaddon’s Succession Treaty 4 364AkkadianNeo-Assyrian Treaties
The Zakutu Treaty 4 374AkkadianNeo-Assyrian Treaties
Oath of Loyalty to Esarhaddon 4 384AkkadianNeo-Assyrian Treaties
Esarhaddon’s Thompson Prism (Nineveh A)4 394AkkadianLate Neo-Assyrian Royal Inscriptions
Esarhaddon’s Heidel Prism (Nineveh B)4 404AkkadianLate Neo-Assyrian Royal Inscriptions
Aššurbanipal’s Rassam Prism (a)4 414AkkadianLate Neo-Assyrian Royal Inscriptions
The Letter to the God Aššur Recounting Sargon’s Eighth Campaign (714 BCE)4 424AkkadianA Neo-Assyrian Letter to the God
Two Letters Related To Assyrian Acts Of “Psychological Warfare”: A Letter From The Reign Of Tiglath-Pileser III4 434AkkadianNeo-Assyrian Letters
Letter from the Reign of Assurbanipal 4 444AkkadianNeo-Assyrian Letters
A Princely Letter: A Letter From Ululayu (Shalmaneser V) To His Father Tiglath-Pileser III4 454AkkadianNeo-Assyrian Letters
Letter to the God Nergal (ARM 1.3)4 464AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Message from Addu for Zimri-Lim (FM 7.38)4 474AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Report on Ḫapīrū-Activities in the Balih Region (ARM 2.131)4 484AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Request for Information About the Conflict with Sumu-Epuh (ARM 5.17)4 494AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Report on a Skirmish in the Beqaʿ Valley (A.3552)4 504AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Epic of Zimri-Lim (A.3152+M.5665+)4 514AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Oath for an Official During the Reign of Zimri-Lim (M.6060)4 524AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Update from the Court of Yarim-Lim of Aleppo (A.2988)4 534AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Request for Permission to Raid the Flocks of Ishme-Dagan (FM8.43)4 544AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Advice for the King on How to Deal with Personnel (ARM 26.5)4 554AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Advice for the King on International Politics and the Mobile Pastoralists (A.1098)4 564AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Report on Zalmaqum and the Šepâtum in the Upper Habur (FM 6.5)4 574AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Request for Zimri-Lim to Reciprocate Support (ARM 28.77)4 584AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Information for Zimri-Lim Regarding Diplomacy and International Politics (FM 2.117)4 594AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Counsel for Zimri-Lim About Preparations for Campaign (FM 2.116)4 604AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Shimatum Informed Zimri-Lim About Her Husband’s Political Activities (ARM 10.5)4 614AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Important Information About Bunu-Eshtar Relayed to the Palace (a.1215)4 624AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Update for the King About Events During the War with Eshnunna (A.1610+)4 634AkkadianMari Inscriptions
A Brief Report to the Queen (ARM 10.157)4 644AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Long Report on the Crisis Among the Kings in the Upper Jezirah (A.1025)4 654AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Account of Prophetic Responses to The Conflict with Eshnunna (ARM 26.199)4 664AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Report on the Upper Jezirah in the Aftermath of the War with Eshnunna (ARM 2.130)4 674AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Rationale for Not Going to Mari (ARM 28.51)4 684AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Complaint to Zimri-Lim About Ibal-Addu (ARM 28.115)4 694AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Report on Ruse Involving the King of Gutium (M.11495)4 704AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Account of Unrest at Talhayum (M.6009)4 714AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Advice for Zimri-Lim on How to Respond to Atamrum (A.2730)4 724AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Reply to Zimri-Lim’s Concerns About the War with Elam (A.3080)4 734AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Report to Zimri-Lim on Reactions to the War with Elam (M.13014)4 744AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Update on a Land-Dispute in the Upper Jezirah (ARM 28.95)4 754AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Report on Politics in the Upper Jezirah (ARM 28.44)4 764AkkadianMari Inscriptions
Administrative Document From Hebron 4 774AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Cylinder Letter From Tagi To Labaya (Beth Shean 2)4 784AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Taanach Tablets 4 794AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Taanach Tablet 1 4 79A4AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Taanach Tablet 2 4 79B4AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Taanach Tablet 5 4 79C4AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Taanach Tablet 6 4 79D4AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
The El-Amarna Letters 4 80-864AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Pharaoh To Kadashman-Enlil (EA 1)4 804AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Rib- Adda To The Pharaoh Of Egypt (Amenhotep III) (EA 74)4 814AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Letter From The General To Rib-Adda Of Byblos Concerning The Recovery Of Lost Asses (EA 96)4 824AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Threatening Letter from the Pharaoh to Aziru (EA 162)4 834AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Letter Of Mayarzana Of Hasi To The Pharaoh About Amanhatpe’s Conquests Of Towns In The Region (EA 185) 4 844AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Labaya of Shechem Writes the Pharaoh to Explain His Loyalty (EA 252)4 854AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Tell El-Hesi Letter (EA 333)4 864AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Cuneiform Texts from Hazor 8, 10, 12, 184 874AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Hazor 8 4 87A4AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Hazor 10 4 87B4AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Hazor 12 4 87C4AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
Hazor 18 4 87D4AkkadianTexts from Ancient Canaan
The Practice of Medicine 2774 884AkkadianMedical Texts
Beginnings of Pharmacology 4 88A4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Natural” Causes: Sick Liver 4 88B4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Natural” Causes: Jaundice 4 88C4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Natural” Causes: Cough 4 88D4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Natural” Causes: Fever; Headache; Skin Lesions; Ears; Eyes4 88E4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Supernatural” Causes: The Moon God Sîn: Herpes4 88F4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Supernatural” Causes: The Moon God Sîn: Leprosy4 88G4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Supernatural” Causes: The Demoness Lamaštu: Diagnostic and Pharmacological Text Excerpts4 88H4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Supernatural” Causes: The Demoness Lamaštu: Fever4 88I4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Supernatural” Causes: Lamaštu and Witchcraft: Rituals of the End of the Month Abu 4 88J4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Supernatural” Causes: Witchcraft: Hypothyroidism 4 88K4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Supernatural” Causes: “Cutting Of The Breath”: Ritual Messages; Sour Milk 4 88L4AkkadianMedical Texts
“Supernatural” Causes: “Cutting Of The Breath”: Star-Borne Poisons 4 88M4AkkadianMedical Texts
Medical Text Commentaries 4 88N4AkkadianMedical Texts
A Ninth-Century Letter from the Middle Euphrates to Central Syria 4 894AkkadianBabylonian Letter
Kar 4: The Creation of Humanity 4 904SumerianSumerian Inscriptions
Enki and the World Order 4 914SumerianSumerian Inscriptions